The Crown and the Scepter

The crown, the sword and the sceptre: Royal instruments for Thai King's coronation
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Crown and the Scepter file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Crown and the Scepter book. Happy reading The Crown and the Scepter Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Crown and the Scepter at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The Crown and the Scepter Pocket Guide.
  • Blitzkrieg Russia (Images of War);
  • Suicide Poems: A Widows Journey?
  • Universals Islands of Adventure Family Tour: A Self-guided Pictorial Walking Tour (Visual Travel Tours Book 142);
  • Scepter Crown Stock Photos & Scepter Crown Stock Images - Alamy.

Ten of us met before the qpr v bolton match. The staff were friendly, the pub was clean no sticky tables , the food was good and we won Thank you Richard for the great five star review. It is nice here that you noticed how clean our pub is and that you enjoyed your visit. They say have the best pint of London pride in London brewed less than a mile from the This site uses cookies to improve your experience, to enhance site security and to show you personalised advertising. Click here to learn more or control your settings.

By clicking on or navigating the site, you agree to our use of cookies. Flights Holiday Rentals Restaurants Things to do. Tip: All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips. Log in to get trip updates and message other travellers. Profile Join.

60 Top Scepter Pictures, Photos, & Images - Getty Images

Log in Join. See all restaurants in London. Closed Now: See all hours. All photos Ratings and reviews 4. Certificate of Excellence Winner. Asian, Pub, Bar, Thai, British. Dinner, Lunch, Drinks. View all details features, about. Location and contact. Is this restaurant good for business meetings? Yes No Unsure.

Does this restaurant offer table service? Does this restaurant offer takeaway or food to go? Can a vegetarian person get a good meal at this restaurant? Is this a British restaurant? Is this restaurant good for lunch? Does this restaurant accept bookings? Does this restaurant offer highchairs for toddlers?

Is this restaurant good for bar scene? Thanks for helping! Share another experience before you go. Reviews Write a Review. Filter reviews. Traveller rating. Excellent Very good Average 3. Poor 1. Terrible 0. Traveller type. Time of year. Language English. All languages. English Edward and of the link between the ancient royal line of England and the present British Empire. The Imperial crowns of England were varied, splendid and numerous, the earlier ones being exquisite works of art; perhaps the most superb example is that worn by Henry IV in his effigy at Canterbury Cathedral, a rich, elegant design of strawberry or vine?

In a portrait of Charles I in the Museum, New York, is a representation of a closed crown very similar to that worn by George V, also the orb and sceptre.

The Queen Opens Up On How Wearing The Crown Could Break Her Neck

The two Imperial crowns made for Charles II were very rich and costly; they were several times altered for his successors. An entirely new crown was made for George IV in which were set a ruby, said to have belonged to the Black Prince, and a sapphire that was unique for size and colour. Rundell and Bridge; it was too heavy for the King to wear long, and a light crown, broken up soon after, was worn by His Majesty during the State banquet. The same jewellers made Queen Victoria's crown; it has, with alterations, been used by her successors; it is an Imperial crown, arched, surmounted by a cross and set over a cap of velvet with an ermine border; the open crown was the sign of an elected monarch.

  • Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia!
  • Crown jewels - Wikipedia?
  • Catalan Numbers with Applications.

The Imperial crown of India was made for George V. This is placed in the sovereign's right hand; it is of gold wreathed with jewels in the design of the rose, the shamrock and the thistle. This is of gold with a fillet of diamonds on the shaft, a mound globe on top with a cross and Dove for the Holy Ghost enamelled white.

This, borne in front of the monarch, is of gold, with a steel foot, and a globe and cross at the top. The vessel that holds the anointing oil; it is of gold in shape of an eagle. The head screws off, the oil goes into the neck, then is poured into the spoon through the beak. This ampulla is very ancient and is thought to be with the spoon the part of the original Regalia that escaped the attention of the Commonwealth. This is also believed to be the original spoon; it is at least very old; of silver gilt with pearls and worn thin with age.

This is placed first in the sovereign's right hand; then, when he takes the sceptre, it is placed in his left hand. It is a golden ball with a fillet of precious stones; surmounted by a cross on a jewelled foot. This mound "monde" world was copied by the Saxon Kings from the orb of the Emperors of Rome or the Emperors of the East. The symbolism is Temporal Power. Curtana from curtus , Lat. Edward the Confessor. The Sword of State is two-handed and has the royal badges on the scabbard; with this sword the sovereign is girt.

The Sword of Justice to the Spirituality is slightly obtuse at the point. The Sword of Justice to the Temporality is sharp pointed. All these swords are sumptuously embellished with gems and have rich scabbards. These are of gold, edged with pearls and hinged to clasp on the arms; these armillae are a very ancient symbol of royalty; they are mentioned in the Bible. An emblem of knighthood; they are "prick spurs" without rowels, of gold, with fine straps added by George IV; the spurs themselves were made for Charles II.

Edward; afterwards, when they were in the Holy Land, the palmers met St. John the Evangelist who bade them take the ring back to the Confessor; this they did, and it was kept at his shrine ever afterwards. The present ring is formed of rubies, a sapphire and diamonds. The British coronation robes, like those of all Western monarchs, follow the design of those worn by the Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. They resemble the Imperial royal robes of Byzantium, the Eastern Empire. Charlemagne, however, never wore the gorgeous Imperial garments with which he is depicted in so many pictures and statues.

He wore but a simple mantle and tunic. When his tomb in Aix-la-Chapelle was opened in , Charlemagne was found, the story goes, seated on a throne, wearing the Imperial robes, with the Bible on his knee; and the details of his attire were carefully noted and copied. The royal robes of England were varied in colour and detail by different sovereigns and according to the fashions of various periods, but the main garments have remained traditional, these are:. The Dalmatica, a knee-length undergarment with long sleeves, usually violet coloured and embroidered with gems.

The name is from Dalmatia, where this garment was supposed to have originated. The Alba, named from its white colour; a silk surplice with pointed sleeves, worn over the Dalmatica and tied with gold cords at the neck. The Stola, a strip of violet silk studded with gems, with tasselled ends, worn round the neck and crossed over the breast. No special meaning—from a Greek word—to equip. The Pallium or mantle. Cut like a cape, the half of a circle of velvet lined with silk or fur, with a clasp at the neck and jewel braidings.

The ancient imperial way of wearing this garment, that reached to the feet, was with one straight edge on the left shoulder, then placed round the neck and pinned on the right shoulder. The imperial vestments included gloves knitted in purple silk with precious stones, stockings of red silk, purple shoes or sandals, and two elaborate girdles of silk and gold. The Saxon Kings used purple colour for their coronation robes; that of Henry III was of "the best purple samite, embroidered with three little leopards in front and three behind. The picture of the child King Richard II in the Liber Regalis shows his robe as gold with pink and blue flowers; in the contemporary account of the crowning of Henry VII, minever fur and ermine are mentioned as lining the purple velvet robes of State.

Mary and Elizabeth wore crimson and purple mantles with ermine and minever. This was made to the order of Edward I, to accommodate the "holy stone" beneath the seat; the stone was an offering from the King at the shrine of Edward the Confessor; the chair is of wood and cost, with the lions and step, about eight pounds; on the occasion of coronations it is covered with brocade or damask; the present lions are modern.

The famous Stone of Scone, the "stone of destiny," the focus of so many legends is of red sandstone, probably from a Dundee quarry. All the sovereigns of Great Britain since Edward I have been consecrated on this chair, save Mary I, who had, according to tradition, a chair especially blessed sent from Rome. This used to be a very popular feature of the coronation festivities; it proceeded from the Tower, the royal residence, to the Abbey, then back again.

The earlier processions, notably that of Richard II, were costly and elaborate pageants; the streets being sumptuously decorated and crowded with spectators.


From early times it has been customary to erect stands along the royal route and to charge for seats thereon; the prices varied from about one farthing for Edward I to thirty shillings for Queen Victoria. This usually took place in Westminster Hall and was a very magnificent affair; the sheriffs of the different counties used to contribute meat and fowls to the feast.

The entry of the Champion was the great feature of the banquet, the fare was costly and varied, served on gold plate. For the banquet of Henry VI, the ingenious cook prepared a red soup with white lions in it, a gold leopard in a custard, chickens "powdered with gilt lozenges," "fritters like the sun," and a haunch of venison inscribed Te Deum Laudamus. When the Court had retired, the people were allowed in to "scramble" for the remnants of the food; after the banquet of George IV, the crowd broke in too soon, and "scrambled away" the gold plate that the lackeys had not had time to remove; some of this was not recovered in the unseemly fight that followed.

This was the last of the public banquets. The coronation of Richard II is the first occasion on which there is a detailed record of the Court of Claims that sits to decide the merits of the claims to perform some service at the coronation, in return for honours or rewards. This office is hereditary in the family of the Duke of Norfolk; part of the duties of the College of Arms is the direction of royal ceremonials and pageants, so that the arrangements for the coronation come directly under the jurisdiction of the Earl Marshal.

Sign me up to the mailing list

Children and dogs are welcome. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Honours of Scotland. Being crowned and invested with regalia owned by a previous monarch who was also a saint reinforced the king's authority. It was displayed at Dublin Castle from September until April as part of the 'Making Majesty' exhibition — the first time it had been to Ireland in 95 years. Two nuptial crowns , the Crown of Margaret of York and the Crown of Princess Blanche , survived as they had been taken out of England centuries before the Civil War when Margaret and Blanche married kings in continental Europe.

The gorgeous attire of the Kings-of-Arms is a notable feature of the coronation; they have crowns of gold oak-leaves set upright over caps of crimson satin, a tabard of the royal arms embroidered on velvet and collars of S. Garter Principal King-of-Arms, who is the Chief, has a crimson satin mantle and a white rod of office; he serves especially the Most Noble Order of the Garter. The formal solemnity of a coronation is the occasion above all others when the impressive and symbolic pomp of ancient heraldry is seen to greatest advantage; and immense labour occupying months of careful work devolves on the Earl Marshal and the College of Arms in the preparation of this gorgeous pageant, which must be perfect in every detail and worthy of the gathering together of a commonwealth of nations.

The Crown and the Scepter: Roles of the Protein Corona in Nanomedicine

Engineering nanomaterials are increasingly considered promising and powerful biomedical tools or devices for imaging, drug delivery, and. A traditional English pub, popular with the locals, The Crown and Sceptre is a great spot to relax with a pint of real ale. One of Croydon's best family friendly pubs.

The robes are of crimson velvet; the mantle has a cape, lined minever and "powdered" with ermine; four rows for a Duke, three and a half rows for a Marquess, three rows for an Earl, two and a half rows for a Viscount, two rows for a Baron. The Oath is an integral part of the coronation ceremony; the Anglo-Saxons regarded it as a compact between King and people, and it still retains that meaning. The present coronation oath dates from the accession of William and Mary, , and has been but little altered since; it is too long to be quoted here; the sum of it is the sovereign's undertaking to maintain the laws and "the Protestant Reformed Religion.

The coronation robes are arranged for convenience during the anointing. When this is done the Chrism—oil mixed with balm—is consecrated by a bishop. It is then poured from the ampulla into the spoon, then placed on the sovereign's head, breast and arms. Since the oil was supposed to be of divine origin this was considered the most important part of the ceremony; "the Lord's anointed" was the most sacred title that could be given the King. The Chrism gave the gift of healing and touched the kingship with divinity. The English anointing ceremonial follows those of ancient times; all sovereigns were anointed; the pouring of "a vial of oil" on the King's head is mentioned in the Bible, and the Hebrews are thought to have derived the custom from Egypt.

MANY of the British coronations are associated with extraordinary or romantic incidents quite apart from the intrinsic splendour of the pageantry and the momentous solemnity of the ceremonial; the following are a few of the most dramatic and interesting. When St. Dunstan crowned Ethelred II, he said: "If you have obtained the Kingdom through the death of your brother the sword shall not depart from your House till it has cut it off, and the Crown shall pass to one of another race and language.

Ethelred had obtained the crown by the murder of his brother Edward, and the prophecy was, like most old prophecies, fulfilled—in the establishment first of the Danish and then of the Norman Kings. Edward the Confessor was crowned at Winchester, Harold, crowned in St. Paul's, it is supposed, was slain October 14th of the same year.

THE KITCHEN AT The Crown & Sceptre

The Archbishops were preparing for the coronation of Edgar the Atheling when they heard that William the Norman was advancing on London, and believing the cause of the English to be hopeless they made their submission to the Conqueror, whom, with deputies from London, they hastened to meet. The Conqueror chose Christmas Day for his crowning; there were sounds of popular discontent from without the newly built church of St. Peter or Abbey of Westminster; the Norman soldiery seized the opportunity to lay wait to plunder the neighbouring houses, and the King himself rushed out with his drawn sword in his hand.

The most hurried of coronations was that of Henry I, who rode post haste to London after finding his brother William Rufus murdered in the New Forest in order to outdo Robert, the rightful heir, then in Normandy. This bold move was successful; the elder brother was never able to make headway against the anointed King. A splendid coronation that took place in dramatic circumstances was that of Matilda, the daughter of Henry I, in Winchester Cathedral in , after her rival, Stephen, had been made prisoner, and in the midst of civil war. Matilda was de jure, at least, an Empress as well as Queen of England.

The gentle Consort of the Conqueror was crowned with him at Westminster he had been already crowned, but chose to share his elevation , and so was the first wife of Henry I, that Scottish Princess, grand-daughter of Edmund Ironside, who brought the ancient royal British blood to mingle with that of the Normans.

Some historians think that the first crowning of a queen consort with her husband was that of Eleanor, wife of Henry I, Henry II had his son, Prince Henry, twice crowned as King; first at Westminster, , then at Winchester, , during his own lifetime in order to secure the succession. Henry II, we are told, was consecrated "several times," though by its nature this sacring can only take place once; he appeared at his crowning in the Angevin mantle that gave him the name of "short mantle.

Richard I was crowned at Westminster, , and again at Winchester on his return from captivity, in order to efface the stain of imprisonment. The unfortunate John was crowned on Ascension Day, , and refused to communicate—an ill omen amply fulfilled. He was not the rightful heir and seems to have considered himself an elected sovereign. A year elapsed between the accession of Edward I and his coronation; at the time of his father's death he was in the Holy Land on a Crusade. This Edward was termed "the first King of the English," as not since the Conquest had the sovereign authority of the King been recognised throughout the realm.

This gorgeous ceremonial, of which there are detailed records, was carried out with extraordinary pomp on 19th August, The young King was a magnificent soldier, a fine statesman, an attractive personality and extremely popular; he was crowned by the Archbishop of Canterbury together with his Queen, Eleanor, a good and beautiful woman. There was a glittering gathering of all the great men of the realm, including the King's two brothers-in-law, Alexander, King of Scotland, and John, Duke of Brittany. The festivities continued for a fortnight and the feast was of a magnificence that was spoken of for years afterwards; some of the provisions ordered included head of cattle, sheep, pigs, 18 wild boars, flitches of bacon and nearly 20, fowls.

Temporary wooden buildings were erected round the fields of Westminster for the accommodation of the guests; the narrow, crooked, winding streets of London were hung with tapestries that dangled from balconies and windows. Conduits flowed with wine; those who could afford to do so threw handfuls of silver to the common people. A touch of magnificence that was much admired was that, when the King was seated on his throne, King Alexander of Scotland came to do him homage with a hundred mounted knights—"and when they had alighted off their horses, they let the horses go whither they would; they that could catch them had them for their own.

This was the beginning of King Edward's active and splendid reign.

Navigation menu

Diplomacy as well as a love of display was behind these opulent shows; nothing put the people in such a good humour as these parades and this bountiful largess. They were often allowed to enter the halls after the King and his peers had risen from the banquet and "scramble away" the remnants of the food. Moreover, it was wise, in the days before the invention of printing or when it was difficult to spread abroad "news," to let as many people as possible see an historic event. Henry Bolingbroke was led by the Archbishop of Canterbury to the throne then raised in Westminster Hall and covered with cloth of gold.

Richard II stepped down from it after his resignation was read out, so that the representatives of the people could actually see the King leave the throne. Henry IV was crowned in Westminster Abbey shortly after. Edward IV, , was anointed with traditional splendour; and the superb coronation of Richard III, of which a full account is extant, was remarkable for its extreme magnificence, and the King and Queen walked barefooted to the shrine of St. Henry VII was first crowned on the battlefield with the circlet found in the baggage of Richard III, or, according to tradition, taken from the boughs of a thorn bush, where it was supposed to be hanging.

Richard would obviously not have worn the royal crown into battle, but some coronet from his helm may have been used. Henry Tudor was crowned by Cardinal Bourchier who had performed this service for two other kings, The coronation of Henry VIII was an extremely splendid affair and filled everyone with delirious joy and excitement after the long economies and drab dullness of his father's useful, but austere rule. Catherine of Aragon shared her husband's splendid coronation of "boundless expenditure," and that of Anne Boleyn was emotionally, sentimentally and politically so important that it attracted a great deal of attention.

Anne Boleyn was not popular, first, because she was an upstart who had displaced a respected Queen, secondly, because she was believed to be a wanton woman who had been the King's mistress for several years; but the splendour of her crowning attracted unwilling admiration. Immense sums were spent on the glorification of this daughter of a country squire; the tissue hangings of the Abbey were of pure gold, and the Queen was drawn in a gold-hung litter wearing the crown jewels scattered in her dark locks—"sitting in her hair" a contemporary describes her.

The fascinating Anne was not accounted beautiful, but she had magnificent black eyes and tresses. Three years after her crowning Anne perished by the sword of the French executioner especially sent to London to behead a Queen. At the coronation of Edward VI the service was shortened in consideration for a delicate child of ten years of age; Richard II, crowned at about the same age, fainted from fatigue; the Kings had to fast in preparation for Holy Communion.

Mary I restored, with anxious care, all the details of the ancient ritual of the Roman Catholic Church. Magnificent shows and pageantry celebrated the elevation of this Queen whose reign was to be so short, sad and sombre both for herself and for her subjects; she was the first of the two Queens regnant who were crowned as unmarried women and the first woman crowned in her own right since Matilda.

The City of London excelled itself in loyal demonstrations on this occasion, among which was the following curious display. A Dutchman named Peter stood on the weathercock of St. Paul's Cathedral holding a streamer five yards in length and waving it; he sometimes stood on one foot and shook the other, and then kneeled down. The spectators highly appreciated this extraordinary show.

  • {{searchView.galleryHeadline()}};
  • Step 1: Collect Material;
  • Sceptre with the Cross?
  • BloodFire (The Road To Hell Book 3).
  • The Straits Times!
  • How to Get Strong and How to Stay So!

The Dutchman had two scaffolds beneath him, "one above the Cross having torches and streamers on it, and one on the ball of the Cross, likewise set with streamers and torches, which could not burn, the wind was so great. The coronation of Queen Elizabeth, , was not as splendid as some of the other shows that she had during her long and sumptuous reign, but it was remarkable for the effusion of affection and loyalty shown by the people.

The date, January 15th, was chosen for her by her astrologer, Dr. The Archbishop of Canterbury refused to officiate and the Bishop of Carlisle crowned the Queen, the streets were gravelled and laid with "blue cloth" for the procession. Elizabeth, Queen of England, In the superb dress in which she went to St. The crowning of James, first of the House of Stewart to reign over the United Kingdom, was intended to be especially gorgeous and large sums were spent on preparing the pageantry, but the plague broke out and therefore the people were forbidden to come to Westminster; despite these precautions hundreds died during the week of the festivities.

Whenever a King's reign has been unfortunate it has been discovered afterwards that there were gloomy portents at his crowning. Thus in the case of Charles I it was remembered afterwards that, contrary to precedent, the King was robed in white during the ceremony in the Abbey. When a few faithful servitors took his headless body to the vault at Windsor a heavy snowstorm covered the modest coffin with a white pall, so that the wise men remarked that "in white the unhappy King had come to his throne and in white he left it. Charles I was termed "the White King" or "dead man" during the Civil War; white was considered unlucky for England; it was a white garment that victims, prepared for sacrifice, wore in early Britain, and for this and other obscure reasons white was avoided.

The reason given for the King's unlucky choice is curious; it is said that there was not enough crimson or violet velvet in London for the robes, nor time to send to Genoa for a supply of this costly material; and so in face of tradition and popular feeling, white stuff, of which there was a plentiful supply, was employed.

Another account is that Charles had a personal wish to wear white; the effect with the jewels, crimson shirt and golden crown, must have been magnificent. Charles I was crowned again at Scone, as King of Scotland; his Roman Catholic Queen, Henrietta Maria, refused to take part in either ceremony—at both of which "many ill omens were observed. Charles II had an uneasy coronation at Scone in ; after nine years of exile he was crowned at Westminster.

A touch of unearthly pomp was given to this coronation by a thunderstorm breaking over Westminster, so that, as Audley remarked, "the cannons and the thunder played together. The coronation of James II was the first to omit the procession from the Tower. The King was not popular, and the Londoners, missing their familiar treat, grumbled loudly. Nor did this coronation lack its ill-omens; the story went that the crown slipped off the King's head immediately after it had been placed there.

The next coronation was unique in ceremonial and dramatic in circumstances. There was much that was unfortunate in this double coronation. The day, 11th of April, was Ash Wednesday, which gave offence to many purists; Sancroft, the Archbishop of Canterbury, refused to officiate, and in his stead was chosen Mary's own Governor, Compton, Bishop of London. It was he who drew up a revised and modified form of the old coronation service that has been used ever since. In this form Compton changed the words, the undoubted King of the realm, for the rightful inheritor of the crown of this realm.

The words in which the Coronation Oath were administered were on this occasion debated long in the House of Commons; here the oath "to maintain the Protestant form of religion as established by law" was introduced; so was the ceremony of the presentation of the Bible as an emblem of the Protestant religion. The time of their coronation was one of the greatest vexations and difficulties for the new sovereigns—Mary especially was in an agitated, emotional state, torn between her loyalty and intense love for her husband and her distress at occupying her father's throne.

Her consenting to her coronation had indeed caused the greatest indignation to James, who wrote to her two days before the ceremony saying he had been willing to make excuses for her considering that her obedience to her husband and compliance to the nation might account for her conduct, but that her crowning was in her own power, and if she did it while he and the Prince of Wales were living, "the curses of an angry father would fall on her as well as of a God who commanded obedience to parents. News had recently come through that James II had landed in Ireland, and this in itself added to the Queen's terrible agitation.

Her sister Anne refused to appear at the ceremony, being tortured by "pangs of conscience" as she declared; but her action was more likely inspired by spite. Mary, who was intensely religious, objected to the noise, excitement, gaiety and pageantry of the coronation ceremony and composed a prayer for her own use on this occasion. She did not wish to receive the Sacrament at the same time as the crown; she argued that there was so much pomp and vanity in all the ceremonies that little time was left for devotion.

The King and Queen went separately to this remarkable function. William, soon after ten in the morning, travelled by barge from Whitehall to Westminster Hall; Mary started three-quarters of an hour later in a sedan chair. When this difficulty was got over a procession started at one o'clock towards the Abbey; there were further delays and it was not until four o'clock that the King and Queen, having performed their private devotions, were ready for the ceremony of the coronation to begin.

When the moment came for William to make the customary offering of the pound of gold, the value of a roll of silk, it was found that his purse had either been stolen on the way to the Abbey, which seemed unlikely, or he had forgotten it, and Lord Danby had to lend His Majesty twenty guineas. Gilbert Burnet preached a fanatical sermon, which lasted half an hour. When the long ritual was at length over the Treasurer threw about coronation medals, "for which everyone scrambled. Here was another odd incident—the Earl Marshal, preceding the entrance of the first dishes with much parade, fell from his frightened horse.

During the second course of the banquet Sir Charles Dymoke, the Royal Champion, entered on horseback and offered the challenge. Lady Russell commented that this coronation was "much finer and in better order than the last; though the numbers of ladies and attendants were fewer, they looked more cheerful than they had done when attending on Mary of Modena. There was, however, an undignified quarrel between the Barons of the Cinque Ports and the Bishops as to the places they should have at the table. The Commons had two feasts and each of them received a gold coronation medal worth five-and-forty shillings.

In the evening there was a Court at Whitehall; Lady Cavendish went to this Court to kiss the hands of the King and Queen: "There was a world of bonfires, and candles almost in every house, which looked extremely pretty. She is tall, but not so fine as the last Queen. Her room was mighty full of company, as you guess. Anne was the only married woman to be crowned by herself as Queen regnant. Her elevation was more of a triumph for the Marlboroughs than it was for Anne Stewart, who, ill, weak-minded and tortured by conscience, would without much persuasion have resigned her Crown to her brother, Prince James.

A strong element of doubt and suspicion clouded the coronation of George I. It was known that the Jacobites were raising a rebellion, and it was "touch and go" whether George Louis would be able to hold a Throne he did not want in a country where he was disliked. There was much suspicion, ill-will and doubt among the people who went to see the Elector of Hanover crowned; only the common sense of the British middle-class and the financial interests of the City saved George his Crown.

An added gloom to this ceremony was the fact that the King had no Queen, his divorced wife, Sophia Dorothea of Zell, then termed Duchess of Ahlden, being a prisoner in Germany. She never came to England, but her sad story was well-known among her former husband's new subjects and not considered to his credit since he was believed to have ordered the murder of Philip von Koenigsmark, Sophia Dorothea's lover.

The coronation of George III, who was young, handsome and considered "a true-born Englishman," was a very popular event and the occasion of much rejoicing. Allan Ramsay's coronation portrait of this King is very attractive; the Regalia were sent to the painter's studio for this picture. The coronation took place after the wedding of the young sovereign with the Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

The Queen was plain, but of impeccable behaviour, and, at first, popular; she scrupulously wore clothes and ornaments of British manufacture, but she tried to alter some of the English fashions and appeared at her coronation with her hair dressed low; this caused much comment, but "the ladies of Great Britain continued to wear a high 'topee. It was cut from an immense diamond which was found in by Mr. Walking through the mine he saw what he believed to be a large piece of crystal protruding from the rock face. He dug it out with his walking stick.

It proved to be the largest diamond ever found, an unbelievable carats. A man called Mr Asscher from Amsterdam was chosen to undertake this difficult task. The story goes that as he delivered the blow to split the diamond, he fainted.